Know What These Terms Mean:
- Heat wave: Prolonged period of excessive heat and humidity. The National Weather
Service steps up its procedures to alert the public during these periods of excessive heat
- Heat index: A number in degrees Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it really feels
when relative humidity is added to the actual air temperature. Exposure to full sunshine
can increase the heat index by 15 degrees F.
- Heat cramps: Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion.
Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is
having trouble with the heat.
- Heat exhaustion: Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or
work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow
to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in
a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke.
- Heat stroke: Heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim's temperature control
system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can
rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly.
- Sunstroke: Another term for heat stroke.
If a Heat Wave is Predicted or Happening
- Slow down. Avoid strenuous activity. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the
coolest part of the day, which is usually in the morning between 4:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m.
- Stay indoors as much as possible. If air conditioning is not available, stay on the
lowest floor, out of the sunshine. Try to go to a public building with air conditioning
each day for several hours. Remember, electric fans do not cool the air, but they do help
sweat evaporate, which cools your body.
- Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Light colors will reflect away some of the
- Drink plenty of water regularly and often. Your body needs water to keep cool.
- Drink plenty of fluids even if you do not feel thirsty.
- Water is the safest liquid to drink during heat emergencies. Avoid drinks with alcohol
or caffeine in them. They can make you feel good briefly, but make the heat's effects on
your body worse. This is especially true about beer, which dehydrates the body.
- Eat small meals and eat more often. Avoid foods that are high in protein, which increase
- Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
Signals of Heat Emergencies
- Heat exhaustion: Cool, moist, pale, or flushed skin; heavy sweating; headache;
nausea or vomiting; dizziness; and exhaustion. Body temperature will be near normal.
- Heat stroke: Hot, red skin; changes in consciousness; rapid, weak pulse; and
rapid, shallow breathing. Body temperature can be very high-- as high as 105 degrees F. If
the person was sweating from heavy work or exercise, skin may be wet; otherwise, it will
Treatment of Heat Emergencies
- Heat cramps: Get the person to a cooler place and have him or her rest in a
comfortable position. Lightly stretch the affected muscle and replenish fluids. Give a
half glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not give liquids with alcohol or caffeine in
them, as they can make conditions worse.
- Heat exhaustion: Get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place. Remove
or loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets. If the
person is conscious, give cool water to drink. Make sure the person drinks slowly. Give a
half glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not give liquids that contain alcohol or
caffeine. Let the victim rest in a comfortable position, and watch carefully for changes
in his or her condition.
- Heat stroke: Heat stroke is a life-threatening situation. Help is needed fast.
Call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number. Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool
the body. Immerse victim in a cool bath, or wrap wet sheets around the body and fan it.
Watch for signals of breathing problems. Keep the person lying down and continue to cool
the body any way you can. If the victim refuses water or is vomiting or there are changes
in the level of consciousness, do not give anything to eat or drink.